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Amira Skomorowska's notes

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Feb
12th
Fri
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Portraits of Periodical Offering, a 6th century Chinese painting portraying various emissaries; ambassadors depicted in the painting ranging from those of Hephthalite, Persia to Langkasuka, Baekje (part of the modern Korea), Qiuci, and Wo (Japan). These paintings were official historical documents used in many Chinese dynasties. The phrase roughly translated to duty offering pictorial. Throughout Chinese history, kingdoms and tribes conquered by Chinese forces were required to send ambassadors to the imperial court of China periodically and pay tribute with valuable gifts (kungpin).

Portraits of Periodical Offering, a 6th century Chinese painting portraying various emissaries; ambassadors depicted in the painting ranging from those of Hephthalite, Persia to Langkasuka, Baekje (part of the modern Korea), Qiuci, and Wo (Japan). These paintings were official historical documents used in many Chinese dynasties. The phrase roughly translated to duty offering pictorial. Throughout Chinese history, kingdoms and tribes conquered by Chinese forces were required to send ambassadors to the imperial court of China periodically and pay tribute with valuable gifts (kungpin).

Feb
10th
Wed
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 The Voynich Manuscript cosmological example, undeciphered illustrated book thought to have been written in the 15th or 16th century. Described as a magical or scientific text, nearly every page contains botanical, figurative, and scientific drawings of a provincial but lively character. The author, script, and language of the manuscript remain unknown.
The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume and it is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912. More informations here.

The Voynich Manuscript cosmological example, undeciphered illustrated book thought to have been written in the 15th or 16th century. Described as a magical or scientific text, nearly every page contains botanical, figurative, and scientific drawings of a provincial but lively character. The author, script, and language of the manuscript remain unknown.

The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume and it is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912. More informations here.

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 The Voynich manuscript, undeciphered illustrated book thought to have been written in the 15th or 16th century. Described as a magical or scientific text, nearly every page contains botanical, figurative, and scientific drawings of a provincial but lively character. The author, script, and language of the manuscript remain unknown.
The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume and it is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912. More informations here.
Pictured above is an illustration from the book that appears to be somehow related to the Sun. The book labels some patches of the sky with unfamiliar constellations.

The Voynich manuscript, undeciphered illustrated book thought to have been written in the 15th or 16th century. Described as a magical or scientific text, nearly every page contains botanical, figurative, and scientific drawings of a provincial but lively character. The author, script, and language of the manuscript remain unknown.

The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume and it is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912. More informations here.

Pictured above is an illustration from the book that appears to be somehow related to the Sun. The book labels some patches of the sky with unfamiliar constellations.

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 The Voynich manuscript, undeciphered illustrated book thought to have been written in the 15th or 16th century. Described as a magical or scientific text, nearly every page contains botanical, figurative, and scientific drawings of a provincial but lively character. The author, script, and language of the manuscript remain unknown.
The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume and it is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912.
Detail  from page 70r of Voynich Manuscript depicting the “astronomical” section.

The Voynich manuscript, undeciphered illustrated book thought to have been written in the 15th or 16th century. Described as a magical or scientific text, nearly every page contains botanical, figurative, and scientific drawings of a provincial but lively character. The author, script, and language of the manuscript remain unknown.

The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume and it is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912.

Detail from page 70r of Voynich Manuscript depicting the “astronomical” section.

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 The Voynich manuscript, undeciphered illustrated book thought to have been written in the 15th or 16th century. Described as a magical or scientific text, nearly every page contains botanical, figurative, and scientific drawings of a provincial but lively character. The author, script, and language of the manuscript remain unknown.
The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume and it is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912. More informations here.

The Voynich manuscript, undeciphered illustrated book thought to have been written in the 15th or 16th century. Described as a magical or scientific text, nearly every page contains botanical, figurative, and scientific drawings of a provincial but lively character. The author, script, and language of the manuscript remain unknown.

The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume and it is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912. More informations here.

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 The Voynich manuscript, undeciphered illustrated book thought to have been written in the 15th or 16th century. Described as a magical or scientific text, nearly every page contains botanical, figurative, and scientific drawings of a provincial but lively character. The author, script, and language of the manuscript remain unknown.
The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume and it is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912. More informations here.
This is page above which is              interpreted by us as describing the evolution from a              single element, first into two, then into 10 (6+3?)              and finally into 19.

The Voynich manuscript, undeciphered illustrated book thought to have been written in the 15th or 16th century. Described as a magical or scientific text, nearly every page contains botanical, figurative, and scientific drawings of a provincial but lively character. The author, script, and language of the manuscript remain unknown.

The mysterious book was once bought by an emperor, forgotten on a library shelf, sold for thousands of dollars, and later donated to Yale. Possibly written in the 15th century, the over 200-page volume and it is named after its discoverer, the American antique book dealer and collector, Wilfrid M. Voynich, who discovered it in 1912. More informations here.

This is page above which is interpreted by us as describing the evolution from a single element, first into two, then into 10 (6+3?) and finally into 19.

Feb
8th
Mon
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William Blake’s Newton (1795)
"Blake criticized Newton and like-minded philosophers such as Locke and Bacon for relying solely on reason.  Blake’s 1795 print "Newton" is a demonstration of his opposition to the "single-vision" of scientific materialism: the great philosopher-scientist is shown utterly isolated in the depths of the ocean, his eyes (only one of which is visible) fixed on the compasses with which he draws on a scroll. His concentration is so fierce that he seems almost to become part of the rocks upon which he sits."

William Blake’s Newton (1795)

"Blake criticized Newton and like-minded philosophers such as Locke and Bacon for relying solely on reason. Blake’s 1795 print "Newton" is a demonstration of his opposition to the "single-vision" of scientific materialism: the great philosopher-scientist is shown utterly isolated in the depths of the ocean, his eyes (only one of which is visible) fixed on the compasses with which he draws on a scroll. His concentration is so fierce that he seems almost to become part of the rocks upon which he sits."

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In this detail from an early 14th century copy of Euclid’s Elements, a woman is shown teaching geometry, 1309 - 1316, France (Paris) 
"Detail of a scene in the bowl of the letter ‘P’ with a woman with a set-square and dividers; using a compass to measure distances on a diagram. In her left hand she holds a square, an implement for testing or drawing right angles. She is watched by a group of students. In the Middle Ages, it is unusual to see women represented as teachers, in particular when the students appear to be monks. She may be the personification of Geometry. Illustration at the beginning of Euclid’s Elementa, in the translation attributed to Adelard of Bath."

In this detail from an early 14th century copy of Euclid’s Elements, a woman is shown teaching geometry, 1309 - 1316, France (Paris)

"Detail of a scene in the bowl of the letter ‘P’ with a woman with a set-square and dividers; using a compass to measure distances on a diagram. In her left hand she holds a square, an implement for testing or drawing right angles. She is watched by a group of students. In the Middle Ages, it is unusual to see women represented as teachers, in particular when the students appear to be monks. She may be the personification of Geometry. Illustration at the beginning of Euclid’s Elementa, in the translation attributed to Adelard of Bath."

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1675 image of a Chinese astronomer with an elaborate armillary sphere. In the 17th century, Chinese astronomers collaborated extensively with Jesuit scholars, who brought the Copernican and Tychonic systems from Europe. 
A European astronomer visited China and studied their ways. He was a Jesuit priest, Ferdinand Verbiest, whose Chinese name was Nan Huai-Jen. The illustration includes contemporaneous astronomical instruments.
Source: Brian J. Ford (1993). Images of Science: A History of Scientific Illustration, Oxford University Press.

1675 image of a Chinese astronomer with an elaborate armillary sphere. In the 17th century, Chinese astronomers collaborated extensively with Jesuit scholars, who brought the Copernican and Tychonic systems from Europe.

A European astronomer visited China and studied their ways. He was a Jesuit priest, Ferdinand Verbiest, whose Chinese name was Nan Huai-Jen. The illustration includes contemporaneous astronomical instruments.

Source: Brian J. Ford (1993). Images of Science: A History of Scientific Illustration, Oxford University Press.

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Representation of Copernicus’ Cosmos taken from Johannes Hevelius’ Selenographia via Trinity College Cambridge.

Representation of Copernicus’ Cosmos taken from Johannes Hevelius’ Selenographia via Trinity College Cambridge.

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Johannes Kepler’s Platonic solid model of the Solar system from Mysterium Cosmographicum c. 1596. Confirmation of the Copernican heliocentric model.

Johannes Kepler’s Platonic solid model of the Solar system from Mysterium Cosmographicum c. 1596. Confirmation of the Copernican heliocentric model.

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Qutb al-Din, 13th century AD, discussed whether heliocentrism was a possibility. 
Picture taken from old manuscript of Qotbeddin Shirazi’s treatise (13th century). The image depicts an epicyclic planetary model.
Qotb al-Din Shirazi (1236 – 1311) (Persian: قطب‌الدین شیرازی) was a 13th century Persian Muslim polymath and Persian poet who made contributions astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy and Sufism.

Qutb al-Din, 13th century AD, discussed whether heliocentrism was a possibility.

Picture taken from old manuscript of Qotbeddin Shirazi’s treatise (13th century). The image depicts an epicyclic planetary model.

Qotb al-Din Shirazi (1236 – 1311) (Persian: قطب‌الدین شیرازی) was a 13th century Persian Muslim polymath and Persian poet who made contributions astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy and Sufism.

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Cellarius Harmonia Macrocosmica - Theoria Lunae, 1708
Andreas Cellarius: Harmonia macrocosmica seu atlas universalis et novus, totius universi creati cosmographiam generalem, et novam exhibens. Plate 18. Theoria Lunae, eius motum per eccentricvm et epicyclvm demonstrans - Representation of the Moon showing its motion in an eccentric orbit with epicycles.

Cellarius Harmonia Macrocosmica - Theoria Lunae, 1708

Andreas Cellarius: Harmonia macrocosmica seu atlas universalis et novus, totius universi creati cosmographiam generalem, et novam exhibens. Plate 18. Theoria Lunae, eius motum per eccentricvm et epicyclvm demonstrans - Representation of the Moon showing its motion in an eccentric orbit with epicycles.