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Oct
23rd
Wed
permalink

Van Gogh’s Shadow by Luca Agnani (Paintings In Motion)

"Luca Agnani, an Italian designer and animator, has taken the classic works of Vincent Van Gogh, and brought them to life. He’s created a short film called Van Gogh’s Shadow which shows over a dozen of Van Gogh’s paintings suddenly filled with life and movement, perhaps giving us an insight into how the artist may have seen the world he lived in.” source

"To calculate the exact shadows, I tried to understand the position of the sun relative to Arles at different times of the day and, according to my calculations, even the river [in The Langlois Bridge at Arles] should flow in that direction," Agnani told The Creators Project over email. "If the video was projected over his paintings, my interpretations would superimpose perfectly, like a mapping of a framework. (…)

Agnani has become somewhat of a phenomenon over the past few years. Since 2011, the Italian artist’s visual mapping and design projections have transformed the faces of some of Europe’s most celebrated religious structures, including the Sanctuary of San Michele (a piece commissioned by UNESCO) and the Catania Cathedral in Sicily. When French musician Yann Tiersen played Ancona, Italy, he asked Agnani to design a projection for his opening night concert at the Mole Vanvitelliana: an artificial port-island that houses a 19th century Leprosorium-turned-art gallery.” The Creators Project, Aug 8, 2013

Painting

1. Fishing Boats on the Beach
2. Langlois Bridge at Arles, The
3. Farmhouse in Provence
4. White House at Night, The
5. Still Life
6. Evening The Watch (after Millet)
7. View of Saintes-Maries
8. Bedroom
9. Factories at Asnieres Seen
10. White House at Night, The
11. Restaurant
12. First Steps (after Millet)
13. Self-Portrait

Music: Experience - Ludovico Einaudi

Luca Agnani, Van Gogh Shadow, 2013

Aug
20th
Mon
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The Human Condition by René Magritte (1933)

       

“If one looks at a thing with the intention of trying to discover what it means, one ends up no longer seeing the thing itself, but thinking of the question that has been raised. The mind sees in two different senses: (1) sees, as with the eyes; and (2) sees a question (no eyes).”

— René Magritte, cited in Humanist, Volume 84, Issues 1-6, Rationalist Press Association Ltd., Jan 1, 1969, p.176.

“I have found a new potential inherent in things — their ability to gradually become something else. This seems to me to be something quite different from a composite object, since there is no break between the two substances.”

— René Magritte, cited in Art History. About.com

“We are surrounded by curtains. We only perceive the world behind a curtain of semblance. At the same time, an object needs to be covered in order to be recognized at all.”

— René Magritte, cited in Art History. About.com

“An object is not so attached to its name that we cannot find another one that would suit it better.”

— René Magritte, cited in La Révolution surréaliste, 1927

René Magritte in his letter to A. Chavee (Sept. 30, 1960) said about the painting:

"In front of a window seen from inside a room, I placed a painting representing exactly that portion of the landscape covered by the painting. Thus, the tree in the picture hid the tree behind it, outside the room. For the spectator, it was both inside the room within the painting and outside in the real landscape.

Which is how we see the world, namely, outside of us; although having only one representation of it within us. Similarly we sometimes remember a past event as being in the present. Time and space lose meaning and our daily experience becomes paramount.

Questions such as ‘What does this picture mean, what does it represent?’ are possible only if one is incapable of seeing a picture in all its truth, only if one automaically understands that a very precise image does not show precisely what it is. It’s like believing that the implied meaning (if there is one?) is worth more than the overt meaning. (…)

How can anyone enjoy interpreting symbols? They are ‘substitutes’ that are only useful to a mind that is incapable of knowing the things themselves. A devotee of interpretation cannot see a bird; he only sees it as a symbol. Although this manner of knowing the ‘world’ may be useful in treating mental illness, it would be silly to confuse it with a mind that can be applied to any kind of thinking at all.”

***

"Magritte was heavily influenced by the writings of Immanuel Kant, who proposed that humans can rationalize situations but can not comprehend the “things-in-themselves.” As it applies to Magritte’s work, he is simply creating a variation upon his over-arching philosophy: A painting of a scene is not the same as a scene. Ceci n’est pas une pipe.

Magritte plays with this philosophy by exploiting the flatness of two-dimensional space in his painting by depicting three-dimensional space outside and a two-dimensional painting that have the same imagery. The title refers to the inherent grappling that all humans go through when viewing his mind-bending painting.”

René Magritte, Belgian surrealist artist (1890-1967), One Surrealist a Day. (Illustration: René Magritte, The Human Condition (1933), Oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC)

See also:

Map–territory relation- a brief résumé, Lapidarium notes

Oct
3rd
Sun
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Domenico Remps, Cabinet of Curiosities, 1690s, Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence
Domenico Remps (also Rems) was an Italian painter of German or Flemish  origin. He was active in the second half of 17th century in Venice and  was a successful painter of Trompe-l’oeil paintings.
This trompe-l’oeil painting representing a cabinet of curiosities blurs the boundary between real and fictitious space.
Trompe-l’oeil, the French term for “eye-deceiver,” is a modern word for  an old phenomenon: a three-dimensional “perception” provoked by a flat  surface, for a puzzling moment of insecurity and reflection. The early  precursors of modern trompe l’oeil appeared during the Renaissance, with  the discovery of mathematically correct perspective. But the fooling of  the eye to the point of confusion with reality only emerged with the  rise of still-life painting in the Netherlands in the 17th century.  Though highly esteemed by collectors, from the beginning art theorists  often dismissed trompe-l’oeil as the lowest category of art, seeing it  as a mere technical tour-de-force that did not require invention or  intellectual thought. In the 17th century, trompe-l’oeil masters were  not only receiving praise and recognition from many quarters but also  pushing the boundaries of the genre. (Source: Web Gallery of Art)

Domenico Remps, Cabinet of Curiosities, 1690s, Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence

Domenico Remps (also Rems) was an Italian painter of German or Flemish origin. He was active in the second half of 17th century in Venice and was a successful painter of Trompe-l’oeil paintings.

This trompe-l’oeil painting representing a cabinet of curiosities blurs the boundary between real and fictitious space.

Trompe-l’oeil, the French term for “eye-deceiver,” is a modern word for an old phenomenon: a three-dimensional “perception” provoked by a flat surface, for a puzzling moment of insecurity and reflection. The early precursors of modern trompe l’oeil appeared during the Renaissance, with the discovery of mathematically correct perspective. But the fooling of the eye to the point of confusion with reality only emerged with the rise of still-life painting in the Netherlands in the 17th century. Though highly esteemed by collectors, from the beginning art theorists often dismissed trompe-l’oeil as the lowest category of art, seeing it as a mere technical tour-de-force that did not require invention or intellectual thought. In the 17th century, trompe-l’oeil masters were not only receiving praise and recognition from many quarters but also pushing the boundaries of the genre. (Source: Web Gallery of Art)

Jun
5th
Sat
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Thomas Cole - The Course of Empire

There is the moral of all human tales;
‘Tis but the same rehearsal of the past.
First freedom and then Glory - when that fails,
Wealth, vice, corruption - barbarism at last.
And History, with all her volumes vast,
Hath but one page.

Andrew Wilton and Tim Barringer. American Sublime, Landscape Painting in the United States 1820-1880, Princeton University Press, 2002. (Cole read Lord Byron’s 1818 work, Childe Harold, and cited these lines in regard to his series.)

The Course of Empire is a five-part series of paintings created by Thomas Cole in the years 1833-36. It is notable in part for reflecting popular American sentiments of the times, when many saw pastoralism as the ideal phase of human civilization, fearing that empire would lead to gluttony and inevitable decay. (Wikipedia) “Cole captured a theory of imperial rise and fall to which most people remain in thrall to to this day. Each of the five imagined scenes depicts the mouth of a great river beneath a rocky outcrop.” (source: Niall Ferguson, Complexity and Collapse, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2010)

"In a letter to his patron Luman Reed, Cole wrote enthusiastically of an idea for his first large-scale allegorical series:

A series of pictures might be painted that should illustrate the History of a natural scene, as well as be an Epitome of Man—showing the natural changes of Landscape & those effected by man in his progress from Barbarism to Civilization, to Luxury, the Vicious state or state of destruction and to the state of Ruin & Desolation.

The philosophy of my subject is drawn from the history of the past, wherein we see how nations have risen from the Savage state to that of Power & Glory & then fallen & become extinct…

— Cole to Luman Reed, 18 September 1833, NYSL; quoted in Foshay, Mr. Luman Reed’s Picture Gallery, 130. (See more: Explore Thomas Cole)

                                           The Savage State

"In the first, The Savage State, the valley from the shore opposite the crag, in the dim light of a dawning stormy day. A hunter clad in skins hastens through the wilderness, pursuing a deer; canoes paddle up the river; on the far shore can be seen a clearing cluster of wigwams around a fire, the nucleus of the city that is to be. The visual references are those of Native American life.

                                  The Arcadian or Pastoral State

In the second painting, The Arcadian or Pastoral State , the sky has cleared and we are in the fresh morning of a day in spring or early summer. The viewpoint has shifted further down the river, as the crag with the boulder is now on the left-hand side of the painting; a forked peak can be seen in the distance beyond it. Much of the wilderness has given way to settled lands, with plowed fields and lawns visible. Various activities go on in the background: plowing, boat-building, herding sheep, dancing; in the foreground, an old man sketches what may be a geometrical problem with a stick. On a bluff on the near side of the river, a megalithic temple has been built, and smoke (presumably from sacrifices) arises from it. The images reflect an idealized, pre-urban ancient Greece.

                                  The Consummation of Empire

The third painting, The Consummation of Empire, shifts the viewpoint to the opposite shore, approximately the site of the clearing in the first painting. It is noontide of a glorious summer day. Both sides of the river valley are now covered in colonnaded marble structures, whose steps run down into the water. The megalithic temple seems to have been transformed into a huge domed structure dominating the river-bank. The mouth of the river is guarded by two pharoses, and ships with lateen sails go out to the sea beyond. A joyous crowd throngs the balconies and terraces as a scarlet-robed king or victorious general crosses a bridge connecting the two sides of the river in a triumphal procession. In the foreground an elaborate fountain gushes. The overall look suggests the height of ancient Rome.

                                   The Destruction of Empire

The fourth painting, The Destruction of Empire , has almost the same point of view as the third, though the artist has stepped back a bit to allow a wider scene of the action, and moved almost to the center of the river. The action is, of course, the sack and destruction of the city, in the course of a tempest seen in the distance. It seems that a fleet of enemy warriors has overthrown the city’s defenses, sailed up the river, and is busily firing the city and killing and raping its inhabitants. The bridge across which the triumphal procession had crossed is broken; a makeshift crossing strains under the weight of soldiers and refugees. Columns are broken, fire breaks from the upper floors of a palace on the river bank. In the foreground a statue of some venerable hero stands headless, still striding forward into the uncertain future, reminiscent of the hunter in the first painting. The scene is perhaps suggested by the Vandal Sack of Rome (455).

                                                Desolation

The fifth painting, Desolation, shows the results, years later. We view the remains of the city in the livid light of a dying day. The landscape has begun to return to wilderness, and no human beings are to be seen; but the remnants of their architecture emerge from beneath a mantle of trees, ivy, and other overgrowth. The broken stumps of the pharoses loom in the background. The arches of the shattered bridge, and the columns of the temple are still visible; a single column looms in the foreground, now a nesting place for birds. The sunrise of the first painting is mirrored here by a moonrise, a pale light reflecting in the ruin-choked river while the standing pillar reflects the last rays of sunset.

Sic transit gloria mundi (“thus passes the glory of the world”).” — (Source: Cedar Grove - The Thomas Cole National Historic Site). Collection: New-York Historical Society

"Conceived in the mid-1830s, Cole’s great pentaptych has a clear message: all empires, no matter how magnificent, are condemned to decline and fall." - Niall Ferguson, Complexity and Collapse, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2010)

See also:
☞ Thomas Cole - The Voyage of Life
☞ Niall Ferguson, Empires on the Edge of Chaos, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2010
☞ Noah Raford, Collapse Dynamics: Phase Transitions in Complex Social Systems, MIT

May
28th
Fri
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Alberti’s window

    

Illustration above: an open frame gridded by perpendicular threads through which the artist should view the scene to be painted, and then transfer the coordinate details in scale onto his similarly gridded picture. In essence, even if inadvertent, it shifted the purpose of perspective painting not as a depiction of divine mystery revealed by geometry, but as worldly perfection framed by geometry. - Source: História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos - Brunelleschi’s mirror, Alberti’s window, and Galileo’s ‘perspective tube’

Alberti’s window was a conceptual method for renaissance artists to understand perspective (“fenestra aperta”, the “window to the outside”), which has since become internalised within visual (and consequently social) culture.

Image courtesy The Arrow In The Eye by Michael Kubovy, Christopher Tyler and WebExhibits.

3D rendering uses more or less the same idea to create its perspective model. In realtime 3D, it gets weird because although the supposed agency of the avatar puts the user “in” the scene, the 3D itself is still being rendered onto a 2D plane at which the user is gazing. Gazing at a scene, always framed, that includes a representation of the user that actually occludes some of the scene from the vision of the user. How can it be possible that a representation of myself is blocking my self’s vision?

Is an avatar to be seen as some kind of remote, abstracted, version of a big nose in real life, a nose that constantly blocks the lower mid portion of my vision? Can’t be, since the big nose still plays it’s disrupting role when gazing at my avatar in a realtime 3D scene via a 2D screen. How can a user be “in” a scene while simultaneously gazing at the scene from the outside? This is the dilemma that 90s style VR tried to overcome with clumsy head-mounted devices and so forth. Current realtime 3D, such as in Second Life, is different because there is no attempt to physically immerse the user in the scene, rather it simply uses the more conventional (the convention arising from Alberti’s window) computer screen rendering.” — Adam Nash - Realtime Art Engines

See also:

Leon Battista Alberti

História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos - Brunelleschi’s mirror, Alberti’s window, and Galileo’s ‘perspective tube’

May
14th
Fri
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Apotheosis of Hercules (1733-1736)  by François Lemoyne (1688-1737) painted on the ceiling of Salon d’Hercule, Palace of Versailles. 
The salon d’Hercule (also known as the Hercules Salon or the Hercules Drawing Room) is on the first floor of the Château de Versailles and connects the chapel and the North Wing of the château with grand appartement du roi.
The room was completed in 1736 with the ceiling painting Apothèse d’Hercule (Apotheosis of Hercules) by François Le Moyne, which gave the room its present name.
See also: 3D Virtual Tour on Salon d’Hercule, Versailles

Apotheosis of Hercules (1733-1736) by François Lemoyne (1688-1737) painted on the ceiling of Salon d’Hercule, Palace of Versailles. 

The salon d’Hercule (also known as the Hercules Salon or the Hercules Drawing Room) is on the first floor of the Château de Versailles and connects the chapel and the North Wing of the château with grand appartement du roi.

The room was completed in 1736 with the ceiling painting Apothèse d’Hercule (Apotheosis of Hercules) by François Le Moyne, which gave the room its present name.

See also: 3D Virtual Tour on Salon d’Hercule, Versailles

May
11th
Tue
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(Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Delphic Sibyl, A fresco at the Sistine Chapel, 1509 (More)
William J. Broad on Socrates and the Oracle of Delphi:
"The Oracle had her biggest impact on Socrates.  A native of Athens born a decade after the Persian wars, he became the most celebrated thinker of antiquity because of his uncompromising inquiries into ethics and moral philosophy.  The Pythia’s relationship with him was beguiling in its simplicity.  On a visit to Delphi, one of his students asked if any man was wiser. None, she replied. This declaration became a turning point that guided his inquiries. At the end of his life, at his trial for corrupting Athenian youth, Socrates testified that his pursuit of wisdom grew out of his puzzlement over this prophecy. Deeply aware of his own ignorance, and seeking to understand Apollo’s claim, Socrates said he began a lifelong search to interview men of high repute for wisdom but always came away unimpressed. Even as his constant questioning made him poor and unpopular, religious duty kept him asking and searching, trying to understand the Oracle’s meaning. In the end, he decided it meant that real wisdom is the exclusive property of the gods and Apollo’s reference to him was “as if he would say to us, The wisest of you men is he who has realized, like Socrates, that in respect of wisdom he is really worthless.”
— William J. Broad in The Oracle: The Lost Secrets and Hidden Message of Ancient Delphi, New York: Penguin Press, 2006,     p. 63.

"The effect of these investigations of mine, gentlemen, has been to arouse against me a great deal of hostility, and hostility of a particularly bitter and persistent kind, which has resulted in various malicious suggestions, and in having that term ‘wise’ applied to me. This is due to the fact that whenever I succeed in disproving another person’s claim to wisdom in a given subject, the bystanders assume that I know everything about that subject myself. But the truth of the matter, gentlemen, is likely to be this: that real wisdom is the property of the god (Apollo), and this oracle is his way of telling us that human wisdom has little or no value. It seems to me that he is not referring literally to Socrates, but has merely taken my name as an example, as if he would say to us, ‘The wisest of you men is he who has realized, like Socrates, that in respect of wisdom he is really worthless.”
— Socrates, as recounted by Plato in The Apology of Socrates. Available in The Last Days of Socrates, New York: Penguin Books, 2003,     p. 46.  Translated originally by Hugh Tredennick in 1954; revised translation by Harold Tarrant in 1993. Source: Entersection

(Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Delphic Sibyl, A fresco at the Sistine Chapel, 1509 (More)

William J. Broad on Socrates and the Oracle of Delphi:

"The Oracle had her biggest impact on Socrates. A native of Athens born a decade after the Persian wars, he became the most celebrated thinker of antiquity because of his uncompromising inquiries into ethics and moral philosophy. The Pythia’s relationship with him was beguiling in its simplicity. On a visit to Delphi, one of his students asked if any man was wiser. None, she replied. This declaration became a turning point that guided his inquiries. At the end of his life, at his trial for corrupting Athenian youth, Socrates testified that his pursuit of wisdom grew out of his puzzlement over this prophecy. Deeply aware of his own ignorance, and seeking to understand Apollo’s claim, Socrates said he began a lifelong search to interview men of high repute for wisdom but always came away unimpressed. Even as his constant questioning made him poor and unpopular, religious duty kept him asking and searching, trying to understand the Oracle’s meaning. In the end, he decided it meant that real wisdom is the exclusive property of the gods and Apollo’s reference to him was “as if he would say to us, The wisest of you men is he who has realized, like Socrates, that in respect of wisdom he is really worthless.”

William J. Broad in The Oracle: The Lost Secrets and Hidden Message of Ancient Delphi, New York: Penguin Press, 2006, p. 63.

"The effect of these investigations of mine, gentlemen, has been to arouse against me a great deal of hostility, and hostility of a particularly bitter and persistent kind, which has resulted in various malicious suggestions, and in having that term ‘wise’ applied to me. This is due to the fact that whenever I succeed in disproving another person’s claim to wisdom in a given subject, the bystanders assume that I know everything about that subject myself. But the truth of the matter, gentlemen, is likely to be this: that real wisdom is the property of the god (Apollo), and this oracle is his way of telling us that human wisdom has little or no value. It seems to me that he is not referring literally to Socrates, but has merely taken my name as an example, as if he would say to us, ‘The wisest of you men is he who has realized, like Socrates, that in respect of wisdom he is really worthless.”

— Socrates, as recounted by Plato in The Apology of Socrates. Available in The Last Days of Socrates, New York: Penguin Books, 2003, p. 46. Translated originally by Hugh Tredennick in 1954; revised translation by Harold Tarrant in 1993. Source: Entersection

May
8th
Sat
permalink
Ercole de’ Roberti, The Argonauts leaving Colchis, ca. 1480, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid (source) (via invisiblestories)
Ercole de’ Roberti (c. 1451 – 1496), also known as Ercole Ferrarese or Ercole da Ferrara, was an Italian artist of the Early Renaissance and the School of Ferrara. He was profiled in Vasari's Le Vite delle più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori.
The son of the doorkeeper at the Este castle, Ercole later held the position of court artist for the Este family in Ferrara. According to Vasari:

Ercole had an extraordinary love of wine, and his frequent drunkenness did much to shorten his life, which he had enjoyed without any accident up to the age of forty, when he was smitten one day by apoplexy, which made an end of him in a short time. 

Paintings by Ercole are rare. His life was short and many of his works have been destroyed.
The Argonauts (Greek: Αργοναύται, Argonautai; Georgian: არგონავტები, ArgonavTebi) were a band of heroes in Greek mythology who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis (modern day Georgia) in his quest to find the Golden Fleece. Their name comes from their ship, the Argo, which was named after its builder, Argus. “Argonauts”, therefore, literally means “Argo sailors”. They were sometimes called Minyans, after a prehistoric tribe of the area. (…)
According to the Greek mythology, Colchis was a fabulously wealthy land situated on the mysterious periphery of the heroic world. Here in the sacred grove of the war god Ares, King Aeëtes hung the Golden Fleece until it was seized by Jason and the Argonauts. Colchis was also the land where the mythological Prometheus was punished by being chained to a mountain while an eagle ate at his liver for revealing to humanity the secret of fire. Amazons also were said to be of Scythian origin from Colchis. The main mythical characters from Colchis are Aeëtes, Medea, Absyrtus, Chalciope, Circe, Eidyia, Pasiphaë.
(More: Argonautae history, Pelion Myths: Jason and the Argonauts )

Ercole de’ Roberti, The Argonauts leaving Colchis, ca. 1480, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid (source) (via invisiblestories)

Ercole de’ Roberti (c. 1451 – 1496), also known as Ercole Ferrarese or Ercole da Ferrara, was an Italian artist of the Early Renaissance and the School of Ferrara. He was profiled in Vasari's Le Vite delle più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori.

The son of the doorkeeper at the Este castle, Ercole later held the position of court artist for the Este family in Ferrara. According to Vasari:

Ercole had an extraordinary love of wine, and his frequent drunkenness did much to shorten his life, which he had enjoyed without any accident up to the age of forty, when he was smitten one day by apoplexy, which made an end of him in a short time. 

Paintings by Ercole are rare. His life was short and many of his works have been destroyed.

The Argonauts (Greek: Αργοναύται, Argonautai; Georgian: არგონავტები, ArgonavTebi) were a band of heroes in Greek mythology who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis (modern day Georgia) in his quest to find the Golden Fleece. Their name comes from their ship, the Argo, which was named after its builder, Argus. “Argonauts”, therefore, literally means “Argo sailors”. They were sometimes called Minyans, after a prehistoric tribe of the area. (…)

According to the Greek mythology, Colchis was a fabulously wealthy land situated on the mysterious periphery of the heroic world. Here in the sacred grove of the war god Ares, King Aeëtes hung the Golden Fleece until it was seized by Jason and the Argonauts. Colchis was also the land where the mythological Prometheus was punished by being chained to a mountain while an eagle ate at his liver for revealing to humanity the secret of fire. Amazons also were said to be of Scythian origin from Colchis. The main mythical characters from Colchis are Aeëtes, Medea, Absyrtus, Chalciope, Circe, Eidyia, Pasiphaë.

(More: Argonautae history, Pelion Myths: Jason and the Argonauts )

Mar
26th
Fri
permalink
Awakening by Alex Fishgoyt
"In Alex’s paintings viewer can see the dimensional rendering of color forming sensations and images.  The unfolding flow of color allows viewer to enter, explore, find, and form his or her own kindred imagery.  Like when a child experiencing joy finding shapes in a cloud, a relationship is formed.  It becomes personal and joins viewer to the artist.  And Alex is the artist who can direct the colors that influence the type and emotional intensity of the images forming in the viewers mind.  The journey Alex creates for the viewer is the delight and he invites and entices the viewer to enjoy it.
His oil paintings clearly depict a philosophical nature, openness, and an organizational harmony; they reflect a surrealistic, phantasmagoric exploration of the “collective unconscious”.” (Source)

Awakening by Alex Fishgoyt

"In Alex’s paintings viewer can see the dimensional rendering of color forming sensations and images. The unfolding flow of color allows viewer to enter, explore, find, and form his or her own kindred imagery. Like when a child experiencing joy finding shapes in a cloud, a relationship is formed. It becomes personal and joins viewer to the artist. And Alex is the artist who can direct the colors that influence the type and emotional intensity of the images forming in the viewers mind. The journey Alex creates for the viewer is the delight and he invites and entices the viewer to enjoy it.

His oil paintings clearly depict a philosophical nature, openness, and an organizational harmony; they reflect a surrealistic, phantasmagoric exploration of the “collective unconscious”.” (Source)

Mar
20th
Sat
permalink
The School of Athens by Raffaello Santi (Raphael) (1509-1510)
The School of Athens, or Scuola di Atene in Italian, is one of the most famous paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1510 and 1511 as a part of Raphael’s commission to decorate with frescoes the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican.  The title “School of Athens” is actually one of a group on the four walls of the Stanza (those on either side centrally interrupted by windows) that depict distinct themes of knowledge. Each theme is identified above by a separate tondo containing a majestic female figure seated in the clouds, with putti bearing the phrases: “Seek Knowledge of Causes”, “Divine Inspiration”, “Knowledge of Things Divine” (Disputa), “To Each What Is Due”. Accordingly, the figures on the walls below exemplify Philosophy, Poetry (including Music), Theology, Law. The “School” is therefore actually “Philosophy”, and its overhead tondo-label, “Causarum Cognitio” tells us what kind, as it appears to echo Aristotle’s emphasis on wisdom as knowing why, hence knowing the causes, in Metaphysics Book I and Metaphysics Book II. Indeed, Aristotle appears to be the central figure in the scene below. However all the philosophers depicted sought to understand through knowledge of first causes. Many lived before Plato and Aristotle, hardly a third were Athenians, and the architecture is Roman, not Greek.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια) was founded by Plato in ca. 387 BC in Athens. Aristotle studied there for nineteen years before founding his own school at the Lyceum. The Academy persisted throughout the Hellenistic period as a  skeptical school, until coming to an end after the death of Philo of Larissa in 83 BC. Although philosophers continued to teach Plato’s philosophy in Athens during the Roman era, it was not until AD 410 that a revived Academy was re-established as a center for Neoplatonism, persisting until 529 AD when it was finally closed down by Justinian I.

The School of Athens by Raffaello Santi (Raphael) (1509-1510)

The School of Athens, or Scuola di Atene in Italian, is one of the most famous paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1510 and 1511 as a part of Raphael’s commission to decorate with frescoes the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. The title “School of Athens” is actually one of a group on the four walls of the Stanza (those on either side centrally interrupted by windows) that depict distinct themes of knowledge. Each theme is identified above by a separate tondo containing a majestic female figure seated in the clouds, with putti bearing the phrases: “Seek Knowledge of Causes”, “Divine Inspiration”, “Knowledge of Things Divine” (Disputa), “To Each What Is Due”. Accordingly, the figures on the walls below exemplify Philosophy, Poetry (including Music), Theology, Law. The “School” is therefore actually “Philosophy”, and its overhead tondo-label, “Causarum Cognitio” tells us what kind, as it appears to echo Aristotle’s emphasis on wisdom as knowing why, hence knowing the causes, in Metaphysics Book I and Metaphysics Book II. Indeed, Aristotle appears to be the central figure in the scene below. However all the philosophers depicted sought to understand through knowledge of first causes. Many lived before Plato and Aristotle, hardly a third were Athenians, and the architecture is Roman, not Greek.

The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια) was founded by Plato in ca. 387 BC in Athens. Aristotle studied there for nineteen years before founding his own school at the Lyceum. The Academy persisted throughout the Hellenistic period as a skeptical school, until coming to an end after the death of Philo of Larissa in 83 BC. Although philosophers continued to teach Plato’s philosophy in Athens during the Roman era, it was not until AD 410 that a revived Academy was re-established as a center for Neoplatonism, persisting until 529 AD when it was finally closed down by Justinian I.

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Armonia by Remedios Varo, 1956.
"María de los Remedios Varo Uranga was a Spanish-Mexican mamacita with a classic look and artistic creations that look like demented Disney settings and characters. She was born December 16, 1908 in Anglés, Girona, Spain. She had a financially comfy childhood because her father was a hydraulic engineer (and no, I don’t mean Snoop Dogg and Dr. Dre hydraulics, we’re taking water flow hydraulics). Thanks to Papa’s job, Varo had the opportunity to travel to Spain and South Africa quite often. Taking trips to places most will never see sparked a lifelong interest in math, mechanical drawing, and locomotor vehicles in young María." Source (via surrealism)

Armonia by Remedios Varo, 1956.

"María de los Remedios Varo Uranga was a Spanish-Mexican mamacita with a classic look and artistic creations that look like demented Disney settings and characters. She was born December 16, 1908 in Anglés, Girona, Spain. She had a financially comfy childhood because her father was a hydraulic engineer (and no, I don’t mean Snoop Dogg and Dr. Dre hydraulics, we’re taking water flow hydraulics). Thanks to Papa’s job, Varo had the opportunity to travel to Spain and South Africa quite often. Taking trips to places most will never see sparked a lifelong interest in math, mechanical drawing, and locomotor vehicles in young María." Source (via surrealism)

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10th
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Salvador Dalí, The Ship, 1943 
The Ship is Surrealist Salvador Dali’s watercolor reworking of renowned maritime artist Montague Dawson’s classic painting forged with his own enigmatic imagery. Dali (1904 – 1989), using a technique called Paranoiac-Critical , portrayed these objects and scenarios in meticulously realistic detail, depicting a dream world in which commonplace objects are juxtaposed and transformed in a bizarre and irrational fashion. Blazing innovative trails in Surrealism, Dali used his exceptional imagination to fuel his contributions to sculpture, theater, fashion and photography.

Salvador Dalí, The Ship, 1943 

The Ship is Surrealist Salvador Dali’s watercolor reworking of renowned maritime artist Montague Dawson’s classic painting forged with his own enigmatic imagery. Dali (1904 – 1989), using a technique called Paranoiac-Critical , portrayed these objects and scenarios in meticulously realistic detail, depicting a dream world in which commonplace objects are juxtaposed and transformed in a bizarre and irrational fashion. Blazing innovative trails in Surrealism, Dali used his exceptional imagination to fuel his contributions to sculpture, theater, fashion and photography.